Monday, August 19, 2019

Funerals of Kings Essays -- Literary Analysis, Beowulf

Beowulf starts with the death of Shield a great king in the eyes of the Geats, it also ends with the death of Beowulf. These funerals are similar in many ways. These funerals can be a reflection of the lives these kings lived because each king had his own way he wanted to be remembered. These funerals both involve huge amounts of treasures being loaded on to ships or back in to the ground and how the Geat people mourned for the loss of the kings.†¨ Treasures were used to gain loyalty from other men in Geat â€Å"steadfast companions will stand by him† (Beowulf 23). Theses â€Å"steadfast companions† (Beowulf 23) help the king survive and help conquer lands and allowing a king to stay in power. In the end of this poem even those gifts will not get the support Beowulf needs. The treasure that was laid on the boat for Shield was â€Å"Far-fetched treasures / were piled upon him, and precious gear† (Beowulf 36-37) A â€Å"far-fetched treasure† (Beow ulf 36) would be some of the rarest in the world. Shield has told his men to â€Å"Shoulder him out to sea’s flood† (Beowulf 30) The boat they put him in was â€Å"A ring-whorled prow rode in the harbor, / ice-clad, outbound, a craft for a prince†(Beowulf 32-33). The description of the boat I think shows the honor that the Geat’s wanted to show their kings and how ornate they make things. At Beowulf’s funeral at the end of the poem they build a great pyre â€Å"The Geat people built a pyre for Beowulf, / stacked and decked it until it stood foursquare.†(Beowulf 3137-38). The pyre is like the boat in the first funeral the boat is built ornately and to stand the test of time. The pyre is built to be tall and strong very similar to the boat. â€Å"hung with helmets, heavy war-shields / and shining armor, just as he had ... ...going or where the â€Å"to wind and tide, bewailing him† (Beowulf 49). They built a memorial on the high grounds letting all that can see know that a great king laid there. All the treasure that had been found in the cave where the dragon had stayed was put back in to the ground where the memorial is. â€Å"They let the ground keep that ancestral treasure / gold under gravel,† (Beowulf 3166-67). These treasures had been around for ages and ages, gold is taken from the ground and in the end put back in to the ground. These kings have thought about how they wanted to be remembered by the people of the time. Their funerals reflected back on their lives, through the gold that was laid on to Shields ship and that was put in the memorial on the coast for Beowulf. Works Cited Greenblatt, Stephen. The Norton Anthology Of English Literature. 8th. A. W W Norton & Co Inc, 2006.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Epic of Beowulf Essay - Heroes †Then and Now :: Epic of Beowulf Essay

Beowulf - Heroes Then and Now Heroes today have changed from those of Beowulf's day. Back in the time of Beowulf heroes were mainly the protectors of the country such as warriors and kings. The roles have changed today were heroes consist of celebrities and sport players. The roles have changed because our society has changed as well. In the time of Beowulf the kings were of the utmost of importance. Without a king the country was sure to fall into ruins. The king's duty was to protect the country. He did this by keeping up with the wars of the surrounding country and finding warriors to protect the country. The king was highly respected and he had a very important job. Without the king there was no hope for the country. Today really is not all that different, instead of a king we have a president. Our president must still keep up with the foreign affairs including wars in order to protect our country. He must also be able to foresee any affect that foreign affairs might have on the country in the long run. It is out president's responsibility to ensure that our military divisions, including the airforce, navy, and army, are prepared and able to defend our nation or our nation's allies. In the epic, Beowulf, heroes were also warriors. These warriors were supposed to protect the country against "monsters" and invasions. The warriors were strong men who could physically make an attack or prevent an attack in order to protect their country. Beowulf was a warrior who was a hero to the country where the Danes lived. Beowulf was able to protect and serve the Danes by killing Grendel. Grendel was an evil monster who had been killing the people that had been sleeping in the hall that he haunted. Beowulf became a hero by not only killing Grendle but also by tearing off his shoulder arm and claw with his bear hands. This is an amazing feat that an ordinary man could not accomplish. To kill a monster with one's bear hands is simply unheard of! Today our heroes do not normally consist of a warrior as much as a sports player. They too, like the warrior, do things that the ordinary man could not do. Accomplishing unordinary feats is how they earn the respect of the nation. Their job is also equally important as the warrior because they allow people to escape their problems and lives for a while they watch the sport.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

On the Idle Hill, The Drum and Drummer Hodge Essay

Poets often write poems to express their ideas, opinions, emotions and experiences of life. Choose three poems you have studied to show how writers have been influenced by the events of war. War, in any shape or form, affects people in many different ways. Many people choose to express their feelings and experiences of war in poems. The three poems I have chosen all have different moods, structures and rhythms but their meanings are all the same – war is ruthless terrifying and pointless. The poem ‘On the Idle Hill’ is by A.E. Housman. Housman wrote the poem in 1896 and he was not writing about any particular war but just the horror of battle in general. Housman never partook in any war but heard about the terror of it from other people’s experiences. The first stanza portrays a peaceful, happy, warm scene. Words such as ‘summer’, ‘sleepy’ and ‘streams’ emphasise this. However, the ‘steady drummer’ cuts through this peaceful atmosphere. It is the sound of the army coming, looking for new recruits to go to war with them. The first stanza seems to be about the drum and how it calls people to war and tears them away from their homes. The line; ‘Drumming like a noise in dreams.’ makes the drum seem like a nightmare, something everyone dreads. In the second stanza, the tone is a lot sadder and darker. The phrases, ‘Far and near’ and ‘low and louder’ are suggesting that war is everywhere, and can be seen in different levels all over the world. Probably one of the most striking and powerful lines in the poem, ‘Dear to friends and food for powder’ is very shocking and adds a more personal theme to the poem, because the soldiers are now being seen as friends, fathers and real people instead of just toys in war. The ‘powder’ is gunpowder so the poet is hinting at the fact that the men are just food for the war. The war is made to sound like a real living thing; this is a good example of personification. The final line of stanza two, ‘Soldiers marching, all to die.’ is depressing and it emphasises the pointlessness and horror of war. Stanza three maintains the sad, depressing tone. There is more powerful and graphic imagery such as, ‘bleach the bones’, which is very sinister and shocking, and, ‘of comrades slain’. ‘Slain’ does not just mean killed, it means murdered and it outlines the brutality of war. Another graphic phrase is, ‘Lovely lads and dead and rotten’. These are contrasting images, and the writer is trying to put the idea across that innocent, good people can be killed in war for no reason. The final line of the stanza, ‘None that go return again.’ sums up A.E. Housman’s view on war – that it is just something which takes the lives of anyone who fights in it and has no point whatsoever. The rhyme in ‘On the Idle Hill’ is ‘abab’ and it keeps a slow, steady rhythm throughout the poem, giving a sad, melancholy tone to the poem. The form in which the writer has set out the poem, in four stanzas, is effective because each one talks about a different aspect of war. This poem shows A.E. Housman’s hatred of battle and how pointless and ruthless he thinks it is. War has obviously effected him deeply and we can see from his language throughout the poem that he feels very strongly about it. The poem ‘The Drum’ was written by John Scott, who was a Quaker. The significance of this is that according to Quaker beliefs, he was a pacifist and so was completely against war and violence. His poem concentrates on the famous recruitment drum which called people to was. He opens the poem directly by saying, ‘I hate that drum’s discordant sound,’. We immediately know what Scott’s feelings about war are – he hates it. Even the rhythm is drum-like, as seen in the repetition of the word ’round’. This has a hypnotic effect, just like the drum was to knew recruits. Scott is bitter about the drum and criticises its ability to hypnotise young men, as seen in the phrase, ‘To thoughtless youth it pleasure yields.’ The poet is saying that the drum almost takes advantage of the young men. The next two lines, ‘To sell their liberty for charms Of tawdry lace, and glittering arms.’ are suggesting that was takes your freedom for something material and worthless, the uniform and the weapons. The poet’s thoughts here are that was may seem exciting and a chance to be a hero but it is really taking your freedom and life. Scott uses the words ‘tawdry’, ‘charms’, and ‘glittering’ to create an image of honour and glory. In the following line, Scott makes the word ‘Ambition’ seem like a person – this is a good example of personification. He is stressing the fact that ‘Ambition’, or the war officers, only have to give one order to send you to your death. The final line of stanza one, ‘To march, and fight, and fall in foreign lands.’ is used by the poet to tell us that in war, you are always matching to die. Stanza two begins with the same two lines as stanza one, with the hypnotic repetition of the word ’round’. The poet now puts his personal feelings into the poem by saying ‘To me it speaks’. He uses powerful imagery, as seen in the words ‘ravaged’, ‘burning’ and ‘ruined’, to create a scene of destruction and death. Also, words such as ‘mangled’ and ‘dying’ provoke horror and terror in the reader’s mind. The following line, ‘And widow’s tears and orphan’s moans.’ is depressing and it shows the aftermath of war – the families ruined. The final two lines, ‘And all that Misery’s hand bestows, To fill the catalogue of human woes.’ are summing up Scott’s view on war, it is terrible, destructive, pointless and terrifying. Again, he uses personification and makes ‘Misery’ seem like a person. The form in which ‘The Drum’ is set out is quite effective – the first stanza is about the recruitment of men and the pointlessness of war and the second is about the aftermath and the death. The rhyming scheme ‘abab’ is used throughout the poem and it is drum-like in sound, which is very fitting to the subject of the poem. In summary, ‘The Drum’ shows John Scott’s hatred of war. Being a pacifist, he obviously did not fight in any wars but he knew enough about them to know of the destruction and death which came with them. He has written the poem to express his views on war and also to try and dissuade people from going to them. ‘Drummer Hodge’ was written by Thomas Hardy after he read about a local drummer boy who had been killed at war. He thought how sad it was that a young boy, who didn’t know the horror of war, should be buried in an alien landscape so far from home. The boy died in the Boer War (1899-1902), which took place in South Africa. The poem has a very pessimistic, sad tone. The first stanza is about how the young boy is buried. The phrases ‘they throw’ and ‘uncoffined’ suggest to us that no thought was put into his burial and he had no proper funeral. He wasn’t even given the luxury of a wooden box, he was just thrown into a hole. Hardy emphasises the fact that he is miles away from home with the phrase ‘foreign constellations.’ The reader feels sorry for the poor boy, buried away from everything familiar to him.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Corn Pone Opinions Essay

In Mark Twain’s essay â€Å"Corn ­Pone Opinions† he uses different strategies to express his position on how people’s actions and thoughts are excessively influenced by others. He changes the pronoun â€Å"I† to â€Å"we†. Twain does this by first explaining his own opinion then addresses everyone else as a collaborative group in order to support his point. He basically states that people follow trends whether they like them or not. He gives a few examples to support his point. The anecdote that Twain uses of a young slave named Jerry that had such a talent for preaching helps introduce his argument in an interesting way. Twain carries the idea that men are made up of society’s thoughts and opinions. Twain feels that everyone will accept the public’s opinions only for the satisfaction of one’s â€Å"self ­approval.† Twain expresses to the reader that we all in a sense sacrifice our own uniqueness to be accepted by society. Corn Pone Opinions are the group of belief with which we each join as an impulsive mode to fit in, as Twain says, â€Å"the instinct that moves to conformity did the work. It is our nature to conformÍ ¾ it is a force which not many can successfully resistÍ ¾ what is it’s seat, the inborn requirement of self ­approval.†

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Motorcycle Handbook Essay

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MOTOR VEHICLES MOTORCYCLE OPERATOR MANUAL In the District of Columbia, you must have a valid driver’s license with motorcycle (M) endorsement to operate a motorcycle. DC law refers to a motorcycle as a 2 or 3 wheeled motor vehicle that has one or more of the following characteristics: †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Piston displacement of more than fifty (50) cubic centimeters Capable of traveling over 35 miles per hour on level ground More than one and one-half (1. 5) brake horsepower (S. A. E. rating) Wheels under 16 inches in diameter Manual transmission. Note: If your 2 or 3 wheeled motor vehicle has none of the above 5 characteristics, it falls under the definition of motorized bicycle and may be operated by a person holding a provisional operator’s permit or a driver’s license (provided the vehicle passes inspection, is registered, and is insured). You may obtain a motorcycle (M) endorsement on your DC driver’s license if you: †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Are at least 18 years of age Have a valid DC driver’s license Pass the DC motorcycle knowledge test Pass the DC DMV motorcycle demonstration skills test or provide a motorcycle demonstration course certificate of completion approved by Maryland or Virginia. Service Locations To take the DC DMV motorcycle knowledge test, you may visit any DMV service center. You must obtain a DC motorcycle learner’s permit after passing the motorcycle knowledge test, if you are taking the DC DMV motorcycle demonstration skills test. To submit MD or VA Motorcycle Certificate of Completion, you must visit the Brentwood Road Test Facility to obtain your DC driver license with motorcycle (M) endorsement. To schedule a motorcycle demonstration skills test, you may schedule online or call (202) 727-5000. Rev. 07/2007 PREFACE Operating a motorcycle safely in traffic requires special skills and knowledge. The Motorcycle Safety Foundation (MSF) has made this manual available to help novice motorcyclists reduce their risk of having a crash. The manual conveys essential safe riding information and has been designed for use in licensing programs. While designed for the novice, all motorcyclists can benefit from the information this manual contains. The original Motorcycle Operator Manual was developed by the National Public Services Research Institute (NPSRI) under contract to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and within the terms of a cooperative agreement between NHTSA and the MSF. The manual and related tests were used in a multi-year study of improved motorcycle operator licensing procedures, conducted by the California Department of Motor Vehicles under contract to NHTSA. These revisions reflect: †¢ The latest finding of motorcyclesafety research. In promoting improved licensing programs, the MSF works closely with state licensing agencies. The Foundation has helped more than half the states in the nation adopt the Motorcycle Operator Manual for use in their licensing systems. Improved licensing, along with high-quality motorcycle rider education and increased public awareness, has the potential to reduce crashes. Staff at the Foundation are available to assist state, private and governmental agencies in efforts to improve motorcycle safety. †¢ Expanded alcohol and drug information. †¢ Comments and guidance provided by the motorcycling, licensing and traffic safety communities. The purpose of this manual is to educate the reader to help avoid crashes while safely operating a motorcycle. For this edition, the MSF has updated and expanded the content of the original manual. Tim Buche President, Motorcycle Safety Foundation 2 Jenner Street, Suite 150 Irvine, CA 92618-3806 www. msf-usa. org CONTENTS WEAR THE RIGHT GEAR †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..    4. Be a responsible rider. WEAR THE RIGHT GEAR When you ride, your gear is â€Å"right† if it protects you. In any crash, you have a far better chance of avoiding serious injury if you wear: †¢ An approved helmet. †¢ Face or eye protection. †¢ Protective clothing. Crashes can occur — particularly among untrained, beginning riders. And one out of every five motorcycle crashes results in head or neck injuries. Head injuries are just as severe as neck injuries — and far more common. Crash analyses show that head and neck injuries account for a majority of serious and fatal injuries to motorcyclists. Research also shows that, with few exceptions, head and neck injuries are reduced by properly wearing an approved helmet. Some riders don’t wear helmets because they think helmets will limit their view to the sides. Others wear helmets only on long trips or when riding at high speeds. Here are some facts to consider: WEAR THE RIGHT GEAR HELMET USE †¢ An approved helmet lets you see as far to the sides as necessary. A study of more than 900 motorcycle crashes, where 40% of the riders wore helmets, did not find even one case in which a helmet kept a rider from spotting danger. †¢ Most crashes happen on short trips (less than five miles long), just a few minutes after starting out. †¢ Most riders are riding slower than 30 mph when a crash occurs. At these speeds, helmets can cut both the number and the severity of head injuries by half. No matter what the speed, helmeted riders are three times more likely to survive head injuries than those not wearing helmets at the time of the crash. There are two primary types of helmets, providing two different levels of coverage: three-quarter and full face. Whichever style you choose, you can get the most protection by making sure that the helmet: HELMET SELECTION 4 HELMETS HELMET USE †¢ Meets U. S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and state standards. Helmets with a label from the Snell Memorial Foundation give you an added assurance of quality. †¢ Fits snugly, all the way around. †¢ Has no obvious defects such as cracks, loose padding or frayed straps. Whatever helmet you decide on, keep it securely fastened on your head when you ride. Otherwise, if you are involved in a crash, it’s likely to fly off your head before it gets a chance to protect you. A plastic shatter-resistant faceshield can help protect your whole face in a crash. It also protects you from wind, dust, dirt, rain, insects and pebbles thrown up from cars ahead. These problems are distracting and can be painful. If you have to deal with them, you can’t devote your full attention to the road. EYE AND FACE PROTECTION Goggles protect your eyes, though they won’t protect the rest of your face like a faceshield does. A windshield is not a substitute for a faceshield or goggles. Most windshields will not protect your eyes from the wind. Neither will eyeglasses or sunglasses. Glasses won’t keep your eyes from watering, and they might blow off when you turn your head while riding. To be effective, eye or faceshield protection must: †¢ Be free of scratches. †¢ Be resistant to penetration. †¢ Give a clear view to either side. †¢ Fasten securely, so it does not blow off. †¢ Permit air to pass through, to reduce fogging. †¢ Permit enough room for eyeglasses or sunglasses, if needed. Tinted eye protection should not be worn at night or any other time when little light is available. EYE AND FACE PROTECTION 5 The right clothing protects you in a collision. It also provides comfort, as well as protection from heat, cold, debris and hot and moving parts of the motorcycle. Jacket and pants should cover arms and legs completely. They should fit snugly enough to keep from flapping in the wind, yet loosely enough to move freely. Leather offers the most protection. Sturdy synthetic material provides a lot of protection as well. Wear a jacket even in warm weather to prevent dehydration. Many are designed to protect without getting you overheated, even on summer days. †¢ Boots or shoes should be high and sturdy enough to cover your ankles and give them support. Soles should be made of hard, durable, slip-resistant material. Keep heels short so they do not catch on rough surfaces. Tuck in laces so they won’t catch on your motorcycle.   Gloves allow a better grip and help protect your hands in a crash. Your gloves should be made of leather or similar durable material. In cold or wet weather, your clothes should keep you warm and dry, as well as protect you from injury. You cannot control a motorcycle well if you are numb. Riding for long periods in cold weather can cause severe chill and fatigue. A winter jacket should resist wind and fit snugly at the neck, wrists and waist. Good-quality rainsuits designed for motorcycle riding resist tearing apart or ballooning up at high speeds. 6 CLOTHING CLOTHING THE RIGHT MOTORCYCLE There are plenty of things on the highway that can cause you trouble. Your motorcycle should not be one of them. To make sure that your motorcycle won’t let you down: Read the owner’s manual first.   Start with the right motorcycle for you.   Be familiar with the motorcycle controls.   Check the motorcycle before every ride.   Keep it in safe riding condition between rides.   Avoid add-ons and modifications that make your motorcycle harder to handle. KNOW YOUR MOTORCYCLE First, make sure your motorcycle is right for you. It should â€Å"fit† you. Your feet should reach the ground while you are seated on the motorcycle. THE RIGHT MOTORCYCLE FOR YOU 1 A plastic shatter-resistant face shield: A. Is not necessary if you have a windshield. B. Only protects your eyes. C. Helps protect your whole face. D. Does not protect your face as well as goggles. Test Yourself Answer – page 40 At minimum, your street-legal motorcycle should have:   Front and rear brakes.   Turn signals.   Horn. Two mirrors. Headlight, taillight and brakelight. are licensed and know how to ride before allowing them out into traffic. No matter how experienced you may be, ride extra carefully on any motorcycle that’s new or unfamiliar to you. More than half of all crashes occur on motorcycles ridden by the operator for less than six months. KNOW YOUR MOTORCYCLE Borrowers and lenders of motorcycles, beware. Crashes are fairly common among beginning riders — especially in the first months of riding. Riding an unfamiliar motorcycle adds to the problem. If you borrow a motorcycle, get familiar with it in a controlled area. And if you lend your motorcycle to friends, make sure they MOTORCYCLE CONTROLS BORROWING AND LENDING Make sure you are completely familiar with the motorcycle before you take it out on the street. Be sure to review the owner’s manual. This is particularly important if you are riding a borrowed motorcycle. If you are going to use an unfamiliar motorcycle: GET FAMILIAR WITH THE MOTORCYCLE CONTROLS Light Switch (high/low) Turn-Signal Switch Ignition Key (varies) Choke (varies) Engine Cut-Off Switch Electric Start Button Horn Button Clutch Lever Speedometer & Odometer Throttle Front Brake Lever Tachometer (if equipped) Rear Brake Pedal Kick Starter (if equipped) Gear-Change Lever. Fuel Supply Valve (if equipped) 7   Make all the checks you would on your own motorcycle. Find out where everything is, particularly the turn signals, horn, headlight switch, fuel-supply valve and engine cut-off switch. Find and operate these items without having to look for them.   Know the gear pattern. Work the throttle, clutch and brakes a few times before you start riding. All controls react a little differently. Ride very cautiously and be aware of surroundings. Accelerate gently, take turns more slowly and leave extra room for stopping. A motorcycle needs more frequent attention than a car. A minor technical failure in a car seldom leads to anything more than an inconvenience for the driver. If something’s wrong with the motorcycle, you’ll want to find out about it before you get in traffic. Make a complete check of your motorcycle before every ride. Before mounting the motorcycle, make the following checks: Tires — Check the air pressure, general wear and tread. †¢ Fluids — Oil and fluid levels. At a minimum, check hydraulic fluids and coolants weekly. Look under the motorcycle for signs of an oil or gas leak.   Headlights and Taillight — Check them both. Test your switch to make sure both high and low beams are working.   Turn Signals — Turn on both right and left turn signals. Make sure all lights are working properly. CHECK YOUR MOTORCYCLE Brake Light — Try both brake controls, and make sure each one turns on the brake light. Once you have mounted the motorcycle, complete the following checks before starting out:   Clutch and Throttle — Make sure they work smoothly. The throttle should snap back when you let go. The clutch should feel tight and smooth. Mirrors — Clean and adjust both mirrors before starting. It’s difficult to ride with one hand while you try to adjust a mirror. Adjust each mirror so you can see the lane behind and as much as possible of the lane next to you. When properly adjusted, a mirror may show the edge of your arm or shoulder—but it’s the road behind and to the side that’s most important.   Brakes — Try the front and rear brake levers one at a time. Make sure each one feels firm and holds the motorcycle when the brake is fully applied.   Horn — Try the horn. Make sure it works. In addition to the checks you should make before every trip, check the following items at least once a week: Wheels, cables, fasteners and fluid levels. Follow your owner’s manual to get recommendations. 2 More than half of all crashes: A. Occur at speeds greater than 35 mph. B. Happen at night. C. Are caused by worn tires. D. Involve riders who have ridden their motorcycles less than six months. CHECK YOUR MOTORCYCLE Test Yourself Answer – page 40 8 â€Å"Accident† implies an unforeseen event that occurs without anyone’s fault or negligence. Most often in traffic, that is not the case. In fact, most people involved in a crash can usually claim some responsibility for what takes place. Consider a situation where someone decides to try to squeeze through an intersection on a yellow light turning red. Your light turns green. You pull into the intersection without checking for possible latecomers. That is all it takes for the two of you to tangle. It was the driver’s responsibility to stop. And it was your responsibility to look before pulling out. Neither of you held up your end of the deal. Just because someone else is the first to start the chain of events leading to a crash, it doesn’t leave any of us free of responsibility. As a rider you can’t be sure that other operators will see you or yield the right of way. To lessen your chances of a crash occurring: KNOW YOUR RESPONSIBILITIES   Be visible — wear proper clothing, use your headlight, ride in the best lane position to see and be seen.   Communicate your intentions — use the proper signals, brake light and lane position.   Maintain an adequate space cushion — following, being followed, lane sharing, passing and being passed. Scan your path of travel 12 seconds ahead.   Identify and separate multiple hazards. Be prepared to act — remain alert and know how to carry out proper crash-avoidance skills. Blame doesn’t matter when someone is injured in a crash. There is rarely a single cause of any crash. The ability to ride aware, make critical decisions and carry them out separates responsible riders from all the rest. Remember, it is up to you to keep from being the cause of, or an unprepared participant in, any crash. KNOW YOUR RESPONSIBILITIES 9 RIDE WITHIN YOUR ABILITIES This manual cannot teach you how to control direction, speed or balance. That’s something you can learn only through practice. But control begins with knowing your abilities and riding within them, along with knowing and obeying the rules of the road. ASIC VEHICLE CONTROL To control a motorcycle well:   Posture — Sit so you can use your arms to steer the motorcycle rather than to hold yourself up.   Seat — Sit far enough forward so that arms are slightly bent when you hold the handlegrips. Bending your arms permits you to press on the handlebars without having to stretch.   Hands — Hold the handlegrips firmly to keep your grip over rough surfaces. Start with your right wrist flat. This will help you keep from accidentally using HOLDING HANDLEGRIPS RIGHT BODY POSITION BODY POSITION too much throttle. Also, adjust the handlebars so your hands are even with or below your elbows. This permits you to use the proper muscles for precision steering.   Knees — Keep your knees against the gas tank to help you keep your balance as the motorcycle turns. Feet — Keep your feet firmly on the footrests to maintain balance. Don’t drag your feet. If your foot catches on something, you could be injured and it could affect your control of the motorcycle. Keep your feet near the controls so you can get to them fast if needed. Also, don’t let your toes point downward — they may get caught between the road and the footrests. There is more to shifting gears than simply getting the motorcycle to pick up speed smoothly. Learning to use the gears when downshifting, turning or starting on hills is important for safe motorcycle operation. Shift down through the gears with the clutch as you slow or stop. Remain in first gear while you are stopped so that you can move out quickly if you need to. SHIFTING GEARS SHIFTING GEARS WRONG 10 Make certain you are riding slowly enough when you shift into a lower gear. If not, the motorcycle will lurch, and the rear wheel may skid. When riding downhill or shifting into first gear you may need to use the brakes to slow enough before downshifting safely. Work toward a smooth, even clutch release, especially when downshifting. It is best to change gears before entering a turn. However, sometimes shifting while in the turn is necessary. If so, remember to do so smoothly. A sudden change in power to the rear wheel can cause a skid. Your motorcycle has two brakes: one each for the front and rear wheel. Use both of them at the same time. The front brake is more powerful and can provide at least three-quarters of your total stopping power. The front brake is safe to use if you use it properly. Remember: †¢ Use both brakes every time you slow or stop. Using both brakes for even â€Å"normal† stops will permit you to develop the proper habit or skill of using both brakes properly in an emergency. Squeeze the front brake and press down on the rear. Grabbing at the front brake or jamming down on the rear can cause the brakes to lock, resulting in control problems. †¢ If you know the technique, using both brakes in a turn is possible, although it should be done very carefully. When leaning the motorcycle some of the traction is used for cornering. Less traction is available for stopping. A skid can occur if you apply too much brake. Also, using the front brake incorrectly on a slippery surface may be hazardous. Use caution and squeeze the brake lever, never grab.   Some motorcycles have integrated braking systems that activate the front and rear brakes together when applying the rear brake pedal. (Consult the owner’s manual for a detailed explanation on the operation and effective use of these systems. ) Riders often try to take curves or turns too fast. When they can’t hold the turn, they end up crossing into another lane of traffic or going off the road. Or, they overreact and brake too hard, causing a skid and loss of control. Approach turns and curves with caution. Use four steps for better control: SLOW   LOOK PRESS   ROLL   SLOW — Reduce speed before the turn by closing the throttle and, if necessary, applying both brakes.   LOOK — Look through the turn to where you want to go. Turn just your head, not your shoulders, and keep your eyes level with the horizon.   PRESS — To turn, the motorcycle must lean. To lean the motorcycle, press on the handlegrip in the direction of the turn. Press left — lean left — go left. Press right — lean right — go right. Higher speeds and/or tighter turns require the motorcycle to lean more. BRAKING TURNING BRAKING TURNING 11 In normal turns, the rider and the motorcycle should lean together at the same angle. NORMAL TURNS ROLL — Roll on the throttle through the turn to stabilize the suspension. Maintain steady speed or accelerate gradually through the turn. This will help keep the motorcycle stable. 3 When riding, you should: A. Turn your head and shoulders to look through turns. B. Keep your arms straight. C. Keep your knees away from the gas tank. D. Turn just your head and eyes to look where you are going. Test Yourself LANE POSITIONS The best protection you can have is distance — a â€Å"cushion of space† — all around your motorcycle. If someone else makes a mistake, distance permits you: Time to react.   Space to maneuver. In some ways the size of the motorcycle can work to your advantage. Each traffic lane gives a motorcycle three paths of travel, as indicated in the illustration. Your lane position should: Increase your ability to see and be seen.   Avoid others’ blind spots.   Avoid surface hazards. Protect your lane from other drivers. Communicate your intentions.   Avoid wind blast from other vehicles.   Provide an escape route. Select the appropriate path to maximize your space cushion and make yourself more easily seen by others on the road. KEEPING YOUR DISTANCE Answer – page 40 LANE POSITIONS In slow tight turns, counterbalance by leaning the motorcycle only and keeping your body straight. SLOW, TIGHT TURNS 12 LANE POSITIONS In general, there is no single best position for riders to be seen and to maintain a space cushion around the motorcycle. No portion of the lane need be avoided — including the center. Position yourself in the portion of the lane where you are most likely to be seen and you can maintain a space cushion around you. Change position as traffic situations change. Ride in path 2 or 3 if vehicles and other potential problems are on your left only. Remain in path 1 or 2 if hazards are on your right only. If vehicles are being operated on both sides of you, the center of the lane, path 2, is usually your best option. The oily strip in the center portion that collects drippings from cars is usually no more than two feet wide. Unless the road is wet, the average center strip permits adequate traction to ride on safely. You can operate to the left or right of the grease strip and still be within the center portion of the traffic lane. Avoid riding on big buildups of oil and grease usually found at busy intersections or toll booths. â€Å"Following too closely† could be a factor in crashes involving motorcyclists. In traffic, motorcycles need as much distance to stop as cars. Normally, a minimum of two seconds distance should be maintained behind the vehicle ahead. To gauge your following distance:   Pick out a marker, such as a pavement marking or lamppost, on or near the road ahead.   When the rear bumper of the vehicle ahead passes the marker, count off the seconds: â€Å"onethousand-one, one-thousand-two. † If you reach the marker before you reach â€Å"two,† you are following too closely. A two-second following distance leaves a minimum amount of space to stop or swerve if the driver ahead stops suddenly. It also permits a better view of potholes and other hazards in the road. A larger cushion of space is needed if your motorcycle will take longer than normal to stop. If the FOLLOWING ANOTHER VEHICLE FOLLOWING 13 FOLLOWING pavement is slippery, if you cannot see through the vehicle ahead, or if traffic is heavy and someone may squeeze in front of you, open up a three-second or more following distance. Keep well behind the vehicle ahead even when you are stopped. This will make it easier to get out of the way if someone bears down on you from behind. It will also give you a cushion of space if the vehicle ahead starts to back up for some reason. When behind a car, ride where the driver can see you in the rearview mirror. Riding in the center portion of the lane should put your image in the middle of the rearview mirror — where a driver is most likely to see you. Riding at the far side of a lane may permit a driver to see you in a sideview mirror. But remember that most drivers don’t look at their sideview mirrors nearly as often as they check the rearview mirror. If the traffic situation allows, the center portion of the lane is usually the best place for you to be seen by the 14 BEING FOLLOWED drivers ahead and to prevent lane sharing by others. Speeding up to lose someone following too closely only ends up with someone tailgating you at a higher speed. A better way to handle tailgaters is to get them in front of you. When someone is following too closely, change lanes and let them pass. If you can’t do this, slow down and open up extra space ahead of you to allow room for both you and the tailgater to stop. This will also encourage them to pass. If they don’t pass, you will have given yourself and the tailgater more time and space to react in case an emergency does develop ahead. Passing and being passed by another vehicle is not much different than with a car. However, visibility is more critical. Be sure other drivers see you, and that you see potential hazards. BEING FOLLOWED PASSING AND BEING PASSED PASSING 1. Ride in the left portion of the lane at a safe following distance to increase your line of sight and make you more visible. Signal and check for oncoming traffic. Use your mirrors and turn your head to look for traffic behind. 2. When safe, move into the left lane and accelerate. Select a lane position that doesn’t crowd the car you are passing and provides space to avoid hazards in your lane. 3. Ride through the blind spot as quickly as possible. 4. Signal again, and complete mirror and headchecks before returning to your original lane and then cancel the signal. Remember, passes must be completed within posted speed limits, and only where permitted. Know your signs and road markings! stay in the center portion of your lane. Riding any closer to them could put you in a hazardous situation. Avoid being hit by:   The other vehicle — A slight mistake by you or the passing driver could cause a sideswipe.   Extended mirrors — Some drivers forget that their mirrors hang out farther than their fenders. Objects thrown from windows — Even if the driver knows you’re there, a passenger may not see you and might toss something on you or the road ahead of you.   Blasts of wind from larger vehicles — They can affect your control. You have more room for error if you are in the middle portion when hit by this blast than if you are on either side of the lane. PASSING BEING PASSED When you are being passed from behind or by an oncoming vehicle, PASSING BEING PASSED Do not move into the portion of the lane farthest from the passing vehicle. It might invite the other driver to cut back into your lane too early. BEING PASSED 15 LANE SHARING Cars and motorcycles need a full lane to operate safely. Lane sharing is usually prohibited. Riding between rows of stopped or moving cars in the same lane can leave you vulnerable to the unexpected. A hand could come out of a window; a door could open; a car could turn suddenly. Discourage lane sharing by others. Keep a centerportion position whenever drivers might be tempted to squeeze by you. Drivers are most tempted to do this:   In heavy, bumper-to-bumper traffic.   When they want to pass you.   When you are preparing to turn at an intersection.   When you are moving into an exit lane or leaving a highway. Drivers on an entrance ramp may not see you on the highway. Give them plenty of room. Change to MERGING LANE SHARING another lane if one is open. If there is no room for a lane change, adjust speed to open up space for the merging driver. Do not ride next to cars or trucks in other lanes if you do not have to. You might be in the blind spot of a car in the next lane, which could switch into your lane without warning. Cars in the next lane also block your escape if you come upon danger in your own lane. Speed up or drop back to find a place clear of traffic on both sides. BLIND SPOTS CARS ALONGSIDE MERGING CARS 4 Usually, a good way to handle tailgaters is to: A. Change lanes and let them pass. B. Use your horn and make obscene gestures. C. Speed up to put distance between you and the tailgater. D. Ignore them. Test Yourself Answer – page 40 16 Good experienced riders remain aware of what is going on around them.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Case-8-Accra-Beach-Hotel Analysis

Mc Donald’s and Subway Services Marketing 2011 Submitted By: Ankit Singh Mc Donald’s and Subway Table of Contents CORE SERVICE AND VARIOUS SUPPLEMENTARY SERVICES†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 5 FACILITATING SERVICES †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 8 ENHANCING SERVICES †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 0 HARD AND SOFT SERVICE STANDARDS †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 11 CHANNELS OF SERVICE DELIVERY †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 14 COMMUNICATION MIX †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 16 SERVICE BLUEPRINTING†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 1 SERVICESCAPE †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 23 SERVICE QUALITY GAP MODEL AND QUALITY DIMENSIONS †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â ‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 28 PRICING STRATEGY †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 35 Critical Analysis †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 2 3 Mc Donald’s and Subway Table of Figures Figure 1: SubWay – Flower of Service †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 6 Figure 3: Facilition Services †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 7 Figure 2: McDonald's – Flower of Service †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Figure 4: Communication Mix †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 16 Figure 5: Role Of Communication Mix †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 19 Figure 6: McDonald – Go Global Act Local †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 20 Figure 7: Mc Donald's Blueprint †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 1 Figure 8: Subway-Blueprint †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 22 Figure 9: Service Gap Model†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 28 Figure 10: Characteristics and Evaluation Outcomes †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚ ¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 29 Figure 11: Strategies to influence expectations †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 0 Figure 12: McDonald's Pricing †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 36 Figure 13: SubWay Pricing †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 38 Figure 14 : SubWay & Mc Donald ‘s Pricing Strategies†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 41 4 Mc Donald’s and Subway CORE SERVICE AND VARIOUS SUPPLEMENTARY SERVICES SUBWAYSUBWAY has come a long way in India since it opened its first restaurant in India. Young Indians have warmed to the image of the American chain, and made it one of their favorite places to swarm to, and hang out in. Subway has very successfully entered the Indian market and sustained its growth by developing a unique menu to appeal to the Indian taste. If you are a foreigner visiting India, you might be interested in indulging in some of the Indianite treats at Subway — for example, the legendary paneer tikka sandwich. Also, as an Indian you might be interested in some of Subway’s Continental trea ts like the Italian B.M. T. Subway offers a wide variety of submarine sandwiches and salads on its menu. It offers an assortment of vegetarian and non-vegetarian fares. They also cater to the health-conscious customers by providing them with 97% fat free subs. Subway offers a separate specialty menu for breakfast. Apart from subs and salads, they also provide side dishes like cookies, desserts and beverages. Subway allows customization of sandwiches by offering a variety of gourmet breads, different kinds of flavored meat, fresh and exotic vegetables and variety of sauces, both low and high calorie.Following the â€Å"Think Global, Act Local† policy, it offers ingredients specific to the locations; for instance, it offers Halal meat in Hyderabad. MCDONALDS McDonald's is without a doubt the world's largest and fastest growing restaurants in the world, serving food and drink to 38 million customers daily. Right from its inceptions through being multi-billion dollar quick servic e restaurant, hamburgers and fries have always been at the front of McDonald's menu. However, their menu has expanded keeping the taste and the lifestyle of the local customers in mind.Its extensive menu also offers a full range of desserts, hot and cold drinks to cater to everyone. McDonalds underlying strategy for success in the Indian market is- â€Å"Local sourcing is the key for Truly Indian products†. Prior to its launch into India, it invested six years to develop its unique cold chain, 5 Mc Donald’s and Subway enabling customers to enjoy highest quality products, absolutely fresh and at a great value. Keeping the culture of India in mind, McDonalds does not offer any beef or pork items. It has developed a specialty menu unique to the Indian palate with a variety of vegetarian and non-vegetarian selections.They are also conscious enough to prepare vegetarian food separately and this separation is maintained throughout the various stages of preparation. So much s o that the mayonnaise and the soft serves are also 100% vegetarian and its uses only vegetable oil as a cooking medium in India. They also have an exclusive menu for breakfast. McDonalds also caters to the tastes of the local people. In Hyderabad, they offer â€Å"Halal Meat† for the non-vegetarians which they quite explicitly convey to its customers through a signage.The efficiency with which the staff at Subway and McDonalds serves the customers is enhanced by the range of services that supplement the core service. Following the flower of services approach, the given figure shows the services that support the core service at Subway. FLOWER OF SERVICE FOR SUBWAY Figure 1: SubWay – Flower of Service FLOWER OF SERVICE FOR MCDONALDS 6 Mc Donald’s and Subway Figure 2: McDonald's – Flower of Service These services can be broadly classified as facilitating and enhancing services: †¢Information †¢Ordertaking †¢Billing †¢Payment Facilitating Enhancing Figure 3: Facilition Services Consultation †¢Hospitality †¢Safekeeping †¢Exceptions 7 Mc Donald’s and Subway FACILITATING SERVICES INFORMATION Information to customers at Subway is provided through different ways: Directions: in case of Subway, they provide a signage to direct the customers to the vegetarian and the non-vegetarian counters. Also, both Subway and McDonalds have user-friendly websites wherein customers can log on from any place at any time to locate their nearest stores. Prices: Prices of the different items of food available at both Subway and McDonalds are displayed on a display board. Apart from that it also displays he prices of the other side dishes which the customer might want to buy. Instructions on using core product: Since Subway is a made-to-order restaurant where a customer has full freedom to customize his sandwich, for a first-time customer, there are instruction sheets at both, vegetarian and the non-vegetarian counters t hat instruct the customers on the steps to follow to place an order for a sandwich. It also lists down the variety of ingredients and gourmet breads that it offers to its customers. Notifications: At Subway, they are prompt enough to notify its customers of any technical problems that might bring inconvenience to them.At times, when the toaster is not in working condition, they put up a notice communicating the same. Both Subway and McDonalds also notify the customers of any promotional or â€Å"combo offers† for the day through posters and leaflets. They allow customers to sign up for offers on the net to get regular notifications on current offers and current news on Subway. Conditions for service: At McDonalds, they promise to deliver the order within minute, at particular time slots, else they give a soft-drink free to the customer.This information is very explicitly visible to make sure that no customer misses to notice it. ORDER FULFILMENT 8 Mc Donald’s and Subwa y The order entry methods followed at Subway are: On-site order fulfillment: Here the customers are served immediately as the orders are placed. Once the customer has decided what to eat, that is, a sandwich or a salad, he moves on to the next step where he chooses bread from a variety of gourmet breads for his sandwich. He also decides the size of the sandwich he would like to have, that is, 6-inches or foot-long.In the next step the customer gets the option of adding extra ingredients to his/her sandwich like double layers of meat or extra cheese for better taste. He then chooses the assortment of vegetables he would like to have. The last item on the list of ingredients is the variety of sauces that subway offers. The customer might want to supplement the sub or salad with his choice of drinks. At McDonalds, they follow an on-site order fulfillment method too, where they promise to deliver the orders in a minute, else they give a soft drink free.McDonalds also allows its customer s to enjoy its meals while they are on their move. Through â€Å"McDonalds Drive Thru†, customers enter the â€Å"drivethru†, place their orders and pick then up within minutes. Web-site order placement: McDonalds allows its customers to become members which in turn helps them place orders online. Telephone order placement: Subway also promises an express delivery facility to offices and home which allows customers to place orders through phone. McDonalds provides home delivery service to its customers with no restriction on the minimum order.However, they charge an additional fee of Rs 20/- per order irrespective of its size. BILLING The billing process goes very systematically. A typical customer would start by placing orders looking at the display board. As he makes his order, the amount due is displayed on the machine after each item is entered. Once all the items have been recorded, the billing machine displays the total amount due. The person who is recording als o verbally states the amount due as a confirmation. The invoice is generated and the payment is made.The billing process uses all the four elements, namely 9 Mc Donald’s and Subway Invoice for individual transactions Verbal statements of amount due Machine display of amount due PAYMENT Payment at both Subway and McDonalds is done using the conventional method of payment through cash or card. The customer is allowed to make payment through credit card only above billing of a certain amount. Also, they provide coupons and vouchers through newspaper inserts, which can be redeemed by the customers. ENHANCING SERVICESCONSULTATION The staff at the counter provides customized advice to customers who are visiting both Subway and McDonalds for the first time. They also help customers decide on what orders to place and which combo offers to avail. HOSPITALITY Subway is seen as a place to hangout with friends. Customers, mostly the younger generation go to Subway when they need to sit, eat and drink with their friends. Also, a Subway outlet is usually never jam-packed with customers, hence there is never a queue to enter or place orders. Thus, there is never a need for waiting space.The customers could also sit for as long as they want without being asked to leave. McDonalds offers high quality products at affordable prices which it promises to serve on time. They have a policy of greeting every customer with the traditional â€Å"Welcome to McDonalds, How may I serve you†. A lot of importance is given to the smile during the greeting. Each McDonald’s outlet has a washroom for must. 10 Mc Donald’s and Subway SAFEKEEPING Subway provides the perfect ambience by ensuring that the outlets are clean, the seats are wellspaced out and it allows the customer to sit back and relax.Their packaging for take always is also ecofriendly and attractive. McDonald's is driven by the philosophy of Quality, Service, and Cleanliness & Value for Money. This transl ates into a commitment to provide customers high quality products, served quickly with a smile, in a clean and pleasant environment at an affordable price. This effectively means that the McDonald's menu is priced at a value that the largest segment of the Indian consumers can afford while at the same time ensuring that quality is not sacrificed for value. The packaging at McDonalds for orders ike â€Å"Happy Meals† which most of the times contains â€Å"happy Toys† and other such items are a major attraction for the kids. These Happy Meals have different toys which when collected will form a set. This in turn, attracts children and increases the sales. EXCEPTIONS Subway caters to the needs of the health conscious customers by providing them 75% fat-free subs and salads. Also, Subway has a policy of getting a feedback form filled by its customers. HARD AND SOFT SERVICE STANDARDS MCDONALDS McDonald’s aims to provide 100 percent total customer satisfaction.In orde r to achieve this goal , McDonald’s relies on its operating philosophy based on QSC & V – Quality, Service, Cleanliness and Value. McDonald’s believes that customer satisfaction is crucial to the success of the brand and all restaurants must perform to the standards. These standards are used in both company owned and franchised restaurants. QUALITY Hard Standards: 11 Mc Donald’s and Subway Best ingredients: This is achieved by its commitment to sourcing all its requirements from local farmers and suppliers. Before entering India, the company spent six years and Rs. 50 crore to set up its supply chain. In India McDonalds pioneered the cold chain management which helps keep vegetables and processed products safe for a longer time. Potato farming in Gujarat Radhakrishna Foodland (Distribution partner) focused all its resources to meet McDonald's expectation of ‘Cold, Clean and On-time Delivery’. Trikaya Agriculture (Supplier of fresh Iceberg let tuce) uses a cold chain to store and transport lettuce to maintain freshness all year round. Pre-cooling rooms ensure field to 2 degrees in 90 minutes.Dynamix Dairy (Supplier of cheese) has a completely computer controlled automation equipment to supply cheese to McDonald’s. Vista Processed Foods Pvt. Ltd (Supplier of chicken and vegetables) has storage facilities to maintain temperatures as low as -35 degrees to ensure freshness. Preparation Standards: Best quality standardized ingredients ensure standardized preparation standards can be followed. Every product has a fixed procedure of preparation. However, newer McDonald’s stores offer MFY (Made for You) where the product is made only after the order is placed. Other standards: Use FIFO (First in First Out) for all inventories.Reverse osmosis water treatment plant – best technology for water purification at every outlet to provide water. Strict standards for vegetarian products including eggless mayonnaise and eggless icecream. SERVICE Some soft standards followed by McDonald’s staff are Welcome every customer with a smile and are genuinely friendly at all times 12 Mc Donald’s and Subway Deliver consistent standards of hospitality Seize opportunities to interact with customers in a personal and positive way Be well informed about product contents and nutritional information Always appear clean and well groomed.Hard standards Serve fresh and hot Serve within one minute of receiving order or give a free coke. This is implemented in a few outlets and is not applicable during peak hours. Cleanliness and Hygiene The counters, tables, floor area are to be kept clean at all times. All staff required to cover their heads and wear gloves when within preparation area. All these standards are evaluated by mystery shoppers and rated. This is called a RVR Restaurant Visitation Report) which provides a snapshot of the stores performance over a period of a few hours. The stores are graded either A, B, C or F.SUBWAY No information is available on the hard standards followed by the company. Below are some soft standards Subway has laid out. Quality All material, vegetables, sauces, meat and cheese have to be sourced from the supplier certified by Subway. Franchises cannot procure from other non-certified suppliers. All material has to be stored at specified temperatures to ensure freshness. All franchises are required to abide by the Gold Certification standards of Subway. Cleanliness All employees must at all times wear gloves while making a sandwich or handling material.All employees must at all times wear a plastic covering their hair to ensure hygiene. Service The employees should greet the customer with a smile. 13 Mc Donald’s and Subway They should help customers choose combinations to customize their Subway Sandwich by making suggestions. During calls for home delivery, all the requirements of the customer should be attentively noted and followed. CHANNE LS OF SERVICE DELIVERY SUBWAY Subway uses Franchising as its channel of delivery. Subway currently has 35340 restaurants in 98 countries. This is being followed by Subway from its inception.As all franchisers, Subway requires each store to operate by the strict standards of quality, service and cleanliness defined by the company. The Subway franchise ensures that safety measures are taken by all its franchisees to provide quality food. All employees need to use gloves at all stages of food handling. Members of the specialty food franchise have to attend a training course in their local area in order to provide needed information to their employees on this regard. Fresh food stock preparation and temperature regulation helps the fast food franchise to keep up its high standards of hygiene.It is to provide the necessary specifications on the levels of cleanliness to be maintained by franchisees that the Subway franchise initiated â€Å"Gold Standard† policies. However, there ha ve been several problems faced by Subway along the way. Quality standards: There have been several complaints from consumers all over the world regarding quality issues of vegetables, meats and sauces used in Subway sandwiches. Most of these issues arise due to improper storage of materials in the store. Temperature controls aren’t maintained resulting in spoilage and wastage.Legal woes: Subway has faced more legal cases than most other franchises. Franchisees complain that even one slip results in threatening letters from the head office. Or complaints regarding too many stores opening in the nearby areas resulting in cannibalization. 14 Mc Donald’s and Subway Many instances have been cited by franchise holders where Subway has unfairly penalized them. MCDONALDS McDonald's is the world's leading global foodservice retailer with more than 33,000 locations in 118 countries. McDonald’s has several company owned stores, but uses Franchising for both domestic and in ternational expansion.McDonald's India was set up as a 50:50 joint-venture between McDonald's at a global level and regional Indian partners such as Hardcastle Restaurants Private Limited in western India, and Connaught Plaza Restaurants Private Limited in northern India. McDonald’s currently has over 220 restaurants in the country. McDonalds doesn’t provide any financial assistance and absentee ownership of finance is not allowed. Also, the financial requirements are quite steep. MFY- In order to implement the MFY (Made for You) option for customers, the franchises are required to upgrade their equipment at their own expense.This caused some problem with maintaining standard service across all outlets. Pricing and menu may also be a point of difficulty for the franchiser and franchisee as prices vary between company owned and franchised stores. Inconsistent standards- There are several instances of poor service or disgruntled customers complaining about the quality of food served. This is because it is difficult to enforce the exact same standards in all franchised stores. 15 Mc Donald’s and Subway COMMUNICATION MIX COMPANY External Marketing Communications Advertising Direct Marketing Sales Promotion Public RelationsInternal Marketing Communications Vertical Horizontal PROVIDERS Interactive Marketing Communications Personal Selling CUSTOMERS Customer Service Centre Service Encounter ServiceScapes Figure 4: Communication Mix The diagram above clearly explains a generic model for communication which is being implemented by services based companies in the world. The communication model is divided into 3 parts as clearly seen above:a) Internal Marketing Communications: It company should manage the information and its flow from company to employees in order to accurately and consistently reach to customers who are hearing and seeing it. ) External Marketing Communications: These are the channels (not under the company’s control) throug h which the company disseminates the information to its customers. These channels provide equal opportunities to all the companies for communication to masses. 16 Mc Donald’s and Subway c) Interactive Marketing Communications: These channels are in direct contact with the customers when it experiences the services in form of servicescapes, service encounters, Customer Service centers and company’s frontend employees.Mc Donalds Extracurricular Crew activities, Free employee meals in the restaurant, MahaBucks Performance-linked pay, Graduate Career Advancement Programme, In House Training Courses Employee of the Month Newspapers, Magazines Television, Radio, Movies Hoardings, Pamphlets, Banners Emails Websites, Banner Ads, M-Commerce Movies Coupons Combo Meals, Corporate Rebates Nickeldon Toys HCL Laptops Every Month press releases, News Yes Children's Day , Birth Days Bollywood Actors Subway Extracurricular Crew activities I N T E R N A L Horizontal Company Policies Ver ticalIn Housing Training, Performance-linked pay Employee of the Month Newspapers, Magazines Television, Radio Hoardings, Pamphlets, Banners, vehicle advertising on Cabs Emails Websites, Banner Ads, M-Commerce Movies Coupons Goodies , Corporate Rebates No No Internal Branding Branding Through Employees Print Broadcast S E R V I C E M A R K E T I N G Advertising Outdoor Direct Mail Internet & Mobile Discount Coupons Rebate E X T E R N A L Sales Promotion Gifts(Toys) Co – Promotional Activities Press Release News Yes World Health Day Sports Persons 17 Public RelationsSponsorship Shows, Exhibitions & Special Events Media Coverage Mc Donald’s and Subway 1. McDonald’s retail outlets to encourage young voters for the Lok Sabha elections. 2. McDonald’s ties up with Symbiosis Institute Facebook , Twitter C O M M U N I C A T I O N M I X CSR Activity Fit to Hunger Social Media Facebook , Twitter, YouTube Confirmation Calls for Home Delivery Personalisation and Cust omization of Sub. NO Countrywise Website NO Customer Service Personal Selling Sales Executive Tele- Marketing Confirmation Calls for Home Delivery Probing and giving alternatives for better Deals.NO Countrywise Website NO I N T E R A C T I V E Instruction Material Website Brochures Catalog Signage Interriors Servicescapes Mascot Stationary Employee Uniform Remote Encounters Name Boards Kids Zone, Interior Menu Board Ronald Donald Mc Donalds on tissue Paper ,Tray Paper and Sauce Sashes Dress Code Online orders Placing orders on phone At Franchises Name Boards Normal Interiors NO SubWay on Tissue Paper & Tray Paper Dress Code Online orders Placing orders on phone At Franchises Service Encounters Phone Encounters Face to Face 18 Mc Donald’s and Subway Role of the Various Communication MixFigure 5: Role Of Communication Mix 19 Mc Donald’s and Subway Figure 6: McDonald – Go Global Act Local 20 Mc Donald’s and Subway SERVICE BLUEPRINTING Figure 7: Mc Donald's B lueprint 21 Mc Donald’s and Subway 22 Figure 8: Subway-Blueprint Mc Donald’s and Subway SERVICESCAPE It is a well known fact that the environment in which a service is executed is important. They physical environment or the Servicescape provides cues about the quality and character of the service quality and character of the service, cues that consumers look for both before and after buying and that affect their experience of it.Typology of McDonalds and Subway based on variation in form and Use of the Servicescape: Servicescape Usage Complexity of the Servicescape Elaborate McDonalds Subway Interpersonal Service-Both customer and employee MCDONALDS McDonalds recognizes culturally defined expectations in allowing its franchisees around the world tremendous freedom in designing their Servicescape. McDonald’s strategy is to have restaurants worldwide reflect the culture and community in which they are found. Elements of Physical EvidenceFacility Exterior: Exterior Design: McDonalds design exhibits a sense of â€Å"Forever Young† look with bright red and yellow colours appealing to the children and establishing its family restaurant positioning. The building provides a practical, contemporary design that aligns with the McDonald's brand essence while accommodating the latest operational and consumer experience standards. Their mascot Ronald Mcdonald is also present outside each of their restaurants. McDonalds 23 Mc Donald’s and Subway always have all glass restaurants.McDonalds has always clearly identified and managed the various clues that customers use to form the impressions and feeling about their company. In addition to this, McDonalds has separate take away counters in order to save time of their patrons. Signage: All of McDonalds external signage reads as, â€Å"McDonalds-Family restaurant. Also keeping in mind with the local language, all McDonalds restaurant have their name boards in Hindi. McDonalds strongly believes in adhering to the local sentiments and hence none of the outlets in India sell Beef products and every restaurant has this mentioned.Also McDonalds, strongly believes in glass branding for any new products or services they offer. Most of the communication is designed to cater to local tastes and preferences. Parking/Landscape/Surrounding Environment: All McDonald outlets are located are accessible and present everywhere thus capitalizing on brand recognition. Most of the McDonalds have their own restaurants and hence the seating space available is exclusive to McDonald’s patrons. Also McDonalds offers proper parking facilities for its highway restaurants. Facility InteriorAll McDonalds outlet are standardized in terms of layout and have proper in-store branding. The 24 Mc Donald’s and Subway â€Å"Young and Cheerful† design concept is a progressive, youthful, and energetic environment with open views for social interaction. All McDonald outlets are huge with p roper aisles and passages with appropriate signage for seating arena, lavatories, wet floor and food counters. McDonalds has a Made for You food preparation platform. MFY is a unique concept (cooking method) where the food is prepared as the customer places its order.This cooking method has helped McDonald’s further strengthen its food safety, hygiene and quality standards. McDonalds also has illuminated Menu boards that offer a mix of both vegetarian and non vegetarian burgers along with other savories and drinks. McDonalds also has proper queues for placing order and often there is a executive who assists you in order placing. Also McDonalds gives toys for children thus making them wanting to come back. The other visible cues are color, lighting, in-store music, employee uniforms and trays with literary.McDonalds has ample in store lighting and directly in? uences an individual’s perception of the de? nition and quality of the space, in? uencing his or her awareness of physical, emotional, psychological, and spiritual aspects of the space. The bright McDonald stores ensure prompt handling and evaluation of products. In all McDonald stores the lighting is perceived as more pleasant than other fast food environments. The color scheme that McDonalds uses exhumes cheerfulness and warmth. Red depicts vibrance, cheerfulness while yellow depicts friendliness and brightness.At McDonalds, music is a positive auditory cue stimulating specific consumer behaviour and emotions. Music appears to influence buyer-seller interaction. There is audio played about the latest offers and products. Also a balance and constant sound creates a pleasant sound environment. All employees at McDonald are provided with uniforms and name badges along with caps with McDonald signature â€Å"M† arch. Employees are also trained with appropriate soft skills to address customers. Every employee or front line executive greets the customer and exchanges pleasantries 25Mc Don ald’s and Subway which makes them happy. McDonalds also has the policy of serving within one minute or they give free redeemable coupons on the next visit. SUBWAY Elements of Physical Evidence Facility Exterior: Subway sandwich restaurants are often simple eat outs using minimal architecture and traditional branding with yellow and white shades. The facility exterior often gives a look of freshness and is located amidst other eateries in food courts of malls or recreation centres. Signage: The signage at every Subway store is uniform as per international standards.The store size is generally small and hence there is no room for enough glass branding. Unlike McDonalds, Subway doesn’t have extensive branding on door panels and windows. Facility Interior: The size of any Subway outlet is small in relation to McDonalds, Also, since Subway outlets are located in multiple eatery zones they do not have an exclusive seating arena for its patrons. However the exclusive Subway s tores has minimal seating arena. The in-store lighting is sufficient however not exclusively bright as seen with McDonalds.The color scheme used in all subways is Green depicting a sense of Freshness. Most of the subway outlets have the aroma of freshly baked cookies that draws one towards it. The employees have a proper uniform and our courteous. Also the person who takes your order is the same one who prepares your Sub thus allowing more time for interaction. Since every Sub is customized as per the customer it takes time. 26 Mc Donald’s and Subway However all the ingredients used are fresh and thus adhere to Subway-Eat Fresh strategy. Roles of ServicescapePackage McDonalds Strong visual metaphors, right from its outlets to the employees to the trays to ketchup cups Well designed outlets with appropriate with signs, appropriate ventilation and proper seating arena The goal of being the customers â€Å"third place† is achieved with comfortable chairs, children play ar ena for customers to interact Red and Yellow colour scheme along with McDonald branding to differentiate from others. Subway Visual metaphors in the form of wrapping paper, beverage cups. Small outlets or kiosk with minimal signs and few seats. More of a restaurant to have a quick bite. FacilitatorSocializer Differentiator Regular branding 27 Mc Donald’s and Subway SERVICE QUALITY GAP MODEL AND QUALITY DIMENSIONS Figure 9: Service Gap Model The five gaps that organizations should measure, manage and minimize: Gap 1 (listening gap) is the distance between what customers expect and what managers think they expect – Clearly survey research is a key way to narrow this gap. Gap 2 (standard and specification gap) is between management perception and the actual specification of the customer experience – Managers need to make sure the organization is defining the level of service they believe is needed. 8 Mc Donald’s and Subway Gap 3 (performance gap) is from the experience specification to the delivery of the experience Managers need to audit the customer experience that their organization currently delivers in order to make sure it lives up to the specification Gap 4 (communication gap) is the gap between the delivery of the customer experience and what is communicated to customers – All too often organizations exaggerate what will be provided to customers, or discuss the best case rather than the likely case, raising customer expectations and harming customer perceptions.Finally, Gap 5 is the gap between a customer's perception of the experience and the customer's expectation of the service – Customers' expectations have been shaped by word of mouth, their personal needs and their own past experiences. Routine transactional surveys after delivering the customer experience are important for an organization to measure customer perceptions of service Service Quality dimensions ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Tangibles: Physical evidence of se rvice Reliability: Consistency of performance and dependability Responsiveness: Willingness/readiness of employees to provide service in timely manner Credibility: Trustworthiness, believability, honesty Security: Freedom from danger, risk, doubt Guarantee , Certification Competence: Possession of required skills to perform service Access: Approachability and ease of contact Courtesy: Politeness, respect, consideration, friendliness E Empathy Assurance Figure 10: Characteristics and Evaluation Outcomes 29 Mc Donald’s and Subway Figure 11: Strategies to influence expectations SUBWAYLocation: City Centre Mall, Banjara hills, Hyderabad Mode of service delivery: mainly â€Å"Self Service Model† Number of visit: 3 (to check reliability) In our visit to SUBWAY there we had initial perception about the subway of â€Å"low calorie fast food alternative which is quick and fresh†. Reason for this perception was firstly their tagline â€Å"EAT FRESH† and their comme rcials starring Jared who had lost something like 150 pounds by eating an all-Subwaysandwich diet. Finally we also had in mind that there will be offer of day â€Å"SUB OF THE DAY† with this perception when we visited to SUBWAY there was no disappointment at all.From their nutrition charts we could make out that we can have good low calorie food. This was tangible cue on the counter making us aware that they provide what they convey. But best was, they were also having option of normal full of calorie diets for those who like it that way so in our group no one has to compromise. One of the service facilitator for us their separate VEG and NON VEG counter and their separate preparation counter. *Experience till this place actually reduce the â€Å"communication gap† as we were getting all we expected and it was in level of tolerance service zone so it was a good service.Dimension for service in terms of 30 Mc Donald’s and Subway tangible quality was good as emplo yees were properly dressed, hygienic and clean area, good seating arrangement but in combination with other restaurant and finally good ambience with music. After looking at this entire scenario there was â€Å"assurance† that food delivered will be good and in accordance with expectation. We were quit assured with the quality because of the brand image they have in the market. Finally they replace the food if something goes wrong this also increase assurance from their side which is generally unsaid case for all the restaurants.Now further we went to place our order, here we were having ample of â€Å"tangible cue† (physical evidence) which helped us in making the decision, what to order? Further all information about the sub of the day was provided and people were assisting if extra information was required. Finally after billing we went to counter which were situated adjacent to each other to place order. We got customized subs and employees we continuously asking t he way we want from which loaf to what and how much inside that loaf in the same charge. That was a good experience.Finally we had our food and as soon we were finished person came and immediately cleaned the table. *Experience Regarding the tangible cues, were quiet evident as person making sub was wearing gloves and hair cap. Fresh plates were served. All products of papers and plastic were recyclable. Quality of food was good as they were fresh and prepared in front of eyes in accordance to our taste. This actually reduce â€Å"performance gap† as they were pretty good in the employee end. Service delivery was also in time there was no â€Å"standard and specification gap†. Listening gap† was not there as they actually served the food in the way we asked them to prepare and there was no mistake in any of our food. Even each person (employee) was well versed in Hindi, local language and English. â€Å"Empathy† wasn’t that great as they were polite but were in rush as customer were waiting because there were only two person preparing the sub so they have to rush. They were quiet â€Å"responsive† to what were ordering and even when we ask to clean table again it was done immediately. Quiet â€Å"reliable† service as they delivered all aspects equally to all of us and in our every visit.They also asked us to fill the feedback form that was good and person requested to do it. Service gap- Due to lack of loose small denomination money we were not refunded Rs. 10 change even after 45 min when we were going back. They assured that they will do it when we are returning but still it didn’t happen. They don’t provide the timeline in which you will get your order so if there is rush you 31 Mc Donald’s and Subway have to wait long. Even if we have to wait there is no magazine or television which make time cross by ease. Finally common sitting arrangement which make their customer dependent on rush in other restaurant.This can be reflected in low standard GAP and finally to performance gap in case of return of change. This will affect customer faith to their assurance level. Finally there was no operational cues format so disorder of cues was bound to happen. Mc DONALD Location: City Centre Mall (1st floor, Banjara hills, Hyderabad) Mode of service delivery: mainly â€Å"Self Service Model† Number of visit: 3 (to check reliability) In our visit to Mc DONALDS there we had initial perception about the mc Donalds of â€Å"tasty food with fun† and basically reasonable family and friends restaurant.Reason for this perception was firstly their tagline â€Å"I m lovin it† and their adds on different places with packaging and also else were. Finally we also had in mind that it will be not costly at all. When we reach there it was different then subway in many respect firstly, multiple delivery counter and no separate counter for VEG and NON veg. separate sitting spac e and even different private meeting hall. Nice ambience, good music and clean place to enjoy food. There were multiple counters each taking order then and there and no customization. Here look at menu and order whatever you like from the menu.Lot of tangible cues which help in deciding meal and there were lot of complementary priced meals options. It is for the entire segment who seeks value for money apart from quality. *Experience till this place actually reduce the â€Å"communication gap† as we were getting all we expected and it was in level of tolerance service zone so it was a good service. Dimension for service in terms of tangible quality was good as employees were properly dressed, hygienic and clean area, good seating arrangement. After looking at this entire scenario there was â€Å"assurance† that food delivered will be good and in accordance with expectation.We were quit assured with the quality because of the brand image they have in the market. Finally they replace the food if something goes wrong this also increase assurance from their side which is generally unsaid case for all the restaurants. Now further we went to place our order, here we were having ample of â€Å"tangible cue† (physical evidence) which helped us in making the decision, what to order? Further all information about the meals which we generally happy meals were provided and people were assisting if extra information 32Mc Donald’s and Subway was required. Operational line management were there apart from lot of counters and for entertainment they have television ads running around so even peak hours and even waiting was easy. Apart from this they say delivery in 5 min else free which they stick too. That was a good experience. Finally we had our food and as soon we were finished person came and immediately cleaned the table. *Experience Regarding the tangible cues, were quiet evident as person serving at back were wearing gloves and hair cap. Fre sh plates were served.All products of papers and plastic were recyclable. Quality of food was good as they were fresh and prepared in front of eyes at the backend. This actually reduce â€Å"performance gap† as they were pretty good in the employee end. Service delivery was also in time there was no â€Å"standard and specification gap†. â€Å"Listening gap† was not there as they actually served the food in the way we asked and they used to recheck the order before placing them apart this was mechanized function so error was less. Even each person (employee) was well versed in Hindi, local language and English. Empathy† was good as they were polite even while waiting because there were many counters to serve and no customization so efficiency can be maintained even with the speed. They were quiet â€Å"responsive† to what were ordering and even when we ask to clean table again it was done immediately. Quiet â€Å"reliable† service as they del ivered all aspects equally to all of us and in our every visit. Service gap. Yes one of our friends got free coke for not getting food ordered in 5 min this was a performance GAP and free providing increases assurance quality of the Brand.They have good level of responsiveness as they were delivering in time and response to complain was also very quick. 33 Mc Donald’s and Subway Rating on Basis of high low and medium Service quality dimensions (high is good Assurance and low is bad) Tangibility Empathy Responsiveness Reliability Service gap (low is good and high is Listening bad) Communication Performance Standard SUBWAY medium medium high high medium low low medium low Mc DONALDS medium high medium high high low low low low 34 Mc Donald’s and Subway PRICING STRATEGY Pricing is the process of determining what a company will obtain in exchange for its products.Pricing factors include: Manufacturing cost Market place Competition Market condition Quality of product. It is a fundamental aspect of financial modeling and is one of the four Ps of the marketing mix. The other three aspects are product, promotion, and place. Price is the only revenue generating element amongst the four Ps, the rest are cost centers. When deciding on pricing objectives the organization or company must consider: ? The overall marketing, financial and strategic objectives of the company ? The objectives of the product or brand ? Consumer price elasticity and price points ? The resources available with the organization.A well thought out price for a product or service should fulfill three things: ? Achieve the financial goals of the company ? Fit the realities of the marketplace ? Support a product's positioning and be consistent with the other variables in the marketing mix. Pricing strategies are of various types mainly:? Competition – based pricing ? Cost-plus pricing ? Price skimming ? Penetration pricing ? Limit pricing ? Premium pricing ? Target pricing 35 Mc Don ald’s and Subway ? High – low pricing ? Value based pricing MC DONALDS Value Pricing McDonald’s has a unique pricing strategy that falls exclusively on their many product lines.Their Value Meals fall into the category of value pricing. McDonalds has certain value pricing and bundling strategies such as happy meal, combo meal, family meal etc to increase overall sales volumes. For example, you can order a Mc Veggie Value meal that comes with a Mc Veggie burger, medium drink and fries for around Rs99 where the customer can save Rs 39 if he/she bought the food items separately. You can Super Size this meal to get a large drink and large fries for a little more money or you can go with another value meal that might include different items for ifferent price. Figure 12: McDonald's Pricing Also in its promotions, M c D o n a l d ’ s c a m e u p w i t h a v e r y c a t c h y p u n c h l i n e â€Å" A a p k e z a m a n e m e i n , b a a p k e zamane ke daamâ₠¬ . This was to attract the middle and lower class consumers and the effect can clearly be seen in the consumer base McDonalds has now. 36 Mc Donald’s and Subway Promotional Pricing To promote its breakfast menu Mc Donald’s has come up with a new scheme of giving Rs 20 off on its Great Breakfast meal.This kind of promotional pricing is adopted to target new customers, to increase its base of customers and to give a variety in its offerings to its existing customers to help increase volume. SUBWAY Value Pricing Subway tries to create value products by service in terms of quality, ambience, variety, and convenience. By introducing the concept of sub of the day the company tries to satisfy the needs of its present customers by creating a sense of curiosity amongst in the sense they would want to know what sandwich is the sub of the day. 37 Mc Donald’s and SubwayFigure 13: SubWay Pricing Bundling Strategies Subway offers combo offers of a sandwich, potato chips/coo kie and a drink at only Rs. 45 extra for a medium size meal and Rs. 50 for a large size meal. Promotional Pricing To increase its current consumers base and also to attract new customers, Subway has come up with new campaign where with any 6 inch sub and a medium beverage the company is offering another 6 inch sub for free. In September 2011, Subway has introduced a buy one get one free offer on Mondays. This is valid on all its sandwich offerings. 38 Mc Donald’s and Subway 39Mc Donald’s and Subway 40 Mc Donald’s and Subway Figure 14 : SubWay & Mc Donald ‘s Pricing Strategies 41 Mc Donald’s and Subway Critical Analysis MCDONALDS With respect to the services provided by Mc Donalds, the following management issues were observed: 1. McDonalds wishes to rework on its restaurant interiors and match up to those of its self owned restaurants, However the problem that they have encountered is that franchisee owners are unwilling to invest in interior design . 2. McDonald’s has introduced MFY (Made for You) whereby the burgers are made after the order is placed.However, the franchises are required to upgrade their equipment in order to follow this. The franchisees are not willing to incur such expenditure which poses a problem to McDonald’s. 3. We normally observe the customary trend of people queuing outside McDonalds especially during the weekends. This is due to the limited capacity space in the restaurants. This has been a persistent management problem for Mc Donalds. Even though the management at McDonalds has been trying to search for a solution for the same, it fears doing so

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Is the lenght of psychtherapy related to the nature of treatment or to Essay

Is the lenght of psychtherapy related to the nature of treatment or to the nature of psychological disorders - Essay Example Focal psychotherapy is a limited form of psychotherapy implying an existence of a specific problem and using so-called focused therapy for treating this problem. Psychoanalytic counseling is usually working with specific life situation occurred. It may be a period ranging from one meeting to several years. In some cases a person, who wishes to obtain psychoanalytic help, can choose the duration of treatment depending on the goals and circumstances. The duration and frequency of meetings are determined by the patient and the psychoanalyst and does not necessarily take a long time. If we talk about psychoanalytic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis, they are never limited to a specific time or course of treatment. Together these findings suggest that the length of any psychotherapy is related to the severity of mental disease. Thus, the argument is that the duration of therapy depends on the nature of stated problem and the patient's personality, the methods and various techniques should be chosen accordingly. Key words: psychotherapy, psychoanalysis, psychoanalytic theory, psychological disorder. Introduction Nowadays it is almost impossible to avoid stressfulness, anxiety and disturbance. The tempo of our contemporary life is so fast, that sometimes we really have no time just to get some rest, calm down and have a serious look at things happening in our life. We become too nervous, too irritated, too tired and unsatisfied with everything and anyone. Sometimes it is very difficult and even impossible to single out a definite reason for being so unhappy and distressed. As a matter of fact, such behavior becomes the reason of quarrels and scandals at work and home. Some people can cope with their problems by themselves, but some really need professional help and even treatment. Nobody can deny that everybody needs being heard and understood. With the help of mental health practitioners a lot of people are able to face their fears, doubts, complexes and thus, they ca n fight their own demons successfully. From ancient times people regarded the mental disorders as the most difficult to treat. Such illnesses were considered to be connected with human’s soul and they were almost incurable. In some countries such mentally sick people were supposed to be cursed, they were feared and sickening. In Russia, however, whacky people, or as they were called â€Å"God’s fools†, were considered to be blessed and piety; it was a great sin to hurt or abuse them somehow. Nevertheless, such people were never tried to be treated. But time is changing and there appeared a science that was able to give hope to hopeless, the science able to treat souls. Psychotherapy is a comparatively young science, and it is defined as treatment of different mental and emotional disorders by means of psychological methods. It is not a secret that at the present time more and more people try to seek this help in the offices of psychotherapists. It is necessary f or them to speak to a professional, to get a useful piece of advice and find a rest at last. But still it is not so easy. The period of recovering from any disease is always uneasy and complicated with lots of factors (Bateson, 1958). The therapist should understand the patient's problems, and actively help him overcome such hazards of life