Friday, February 14, 2020

International Organizations of Africa Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

International Organizations of Africa - Essay Example (Draper, 2003) Much analysis of African socio-economic issues was done by UNCTAD. It aims at increasing global understanding of the development problems of Africa so that action at national, regional and international levels can be accelerated and promoted to ensure integration of African countries in the world economy. (Draper, 2003) Towards that effect, UNCTAD works with various international organizations. It also contributes to the New Partnership for Africa's development (NEPAD). The year 2005 will undoubtedly a most favourable year for the region. Apart from the G8 summit in Scotland (where Africa dominated the agenda); the WTO Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong in December highlighted the continent too. While the importance of aid and debt relief for the poorest countries on the continent is acknowledged, favourable terms of trade are increasingly regarded as the key to sustainable economic development and self-sufficiency. The matrix of carve-outs from GATT disciplines included exemptions for developing countries from tariff liberalization. Tariff reduction negotiations therefore covered industrial goods and were dominated by developed countries who exchanged concessions among themselves. Apart from exclusions from some obligations, another aspect of SDT was the granting of preferential market access to developing countries by developed countries as an allowable departure from the non-discrimination principle underpinning GATT. For this and other reasons relating to the overall power distribution in the system, developing countries and African countries were not seen as equal partners in the negotiations. In addition, reliance on preferences locked many African economies into long-term dependency on low value added production for developed country markets. approach' to SDT gave way to one of limiting policy flexibilities and exemptions from obligations, except for least developed countries (LDCs), whilst allowing for 'asymmetry' in developing country commitments. To pacify developing countries, a range of SDT provisions was built into the various WTO agreements. (Draper, 2003) Like many developing countries, African countries were not happy with the results of the Uruguay Round. They adopted a defensive stance towards developed countries, which contributed to failure in two WTO Ministerial Conferences in Seattle and Cancun. They further highlighted their disillusionment by opposing the initiation of the current round of negotiations calling for past 'injustices' to be addressed first. Only after a much diplomatic compromises, particularly with promises of a new round to address their developmental issues they finally relented. With specific reference to the Doha Development Agenda and in generally, a fairer WTO for Africa, some issues to be considered: "agricultural reform, non-agricultural market access challenges; SDT and the implementation agenda; interpretation of WTO rules, as well as adjustment assistance for those countries that stand to lose from liberalization." (Draper, 2005) Africa could benefit from reductions in subsidies in developed country, which promotes price

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